India has routinely decried the Chinese reference to the 1890 treaty, saying that the two countries decided in 2012 that boundary points between India and China involving another country - in this case, Bhutan - will be finalized through consultation with the third nation.
China said on Monday that India was violating an 1890 border agreement between Britain and China that previous Indian governments have pledged to uphold, and it should be respected to end a "very serious" incursion by India.
"It is the basic principle of global law to abide by the treaty", Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Geng Shuang said.
The Indian Army had blocked construction of the road by China in Donglong, a disputed territory between China and Bhutan.
The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) in a statement said "Conveyed to China that road construction would represent significant change of status quo with security implications for India".
"The India-China boundary in Sikkim is well demarcated".
The Royal government of Bhutan has also lodged a protest against the Chinese government on the 20 of June. The Chinese are out to psychologically corner India, but would not like to escalate the standoff to a level where war becomes inevitable because that may well jeopardise the commissioning of the CPEC.
The standoff began mid-June when Indian troops halted the construction of a road in the strategic Doklam region, which China refers to as Donglang. Doka La is the Indian name for the region.
"The other measure aimed to demonstrate to the US India's firm determination to constrain Chinas rise", the article written by Liu Zongyi senior fellow of the state-run think tank, the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies, said.
The submarine is said to be a part of China's People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN) anti-piracy fleet. Amidst this, China has accused India of "foul play" and "betrayal". "He was right. India in 2017 is indeed different from India in 1962, just as China in 2017 is different from that of China in 1962..."
Indian naval satellite Rukmini (Gsat-7), long-range maritime patrol aircraft like Poseidon-8I and warships have monitored at least 13 Chinese naval units in the IOR over the last two months.
Shuang claimed that the successive Indian governments have repeatedly acknowledged, in writing, that it concurs with China on the boundary convention on Sikkim.
Irrespective of whether this was deliberate or a miscalculation, in the larger political context, China is leaving with little strategic options.New Delhi is realizing that with China, there is no middle ground. It was Bhutan which first strongly opposed the road earlier last week, accusing Beijing of "direct violation" of its territorial treaty obligations. There is an understandable degree of disquiet in India over the fact that the current standoff is the longest between security forces of the two countries after 1962.
He, however, said the line for diplomatic communication between India and China is "open and smooth".
The spokesman went on to clarify that "India-China relations as also the relationship between both the armies are extremely well managed by a host of mechanisms. There is no dispute over the boundary between Sikkim and Xi Zang, China", the spokesperson said.